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design of polyacrylamide degradation and its implications in south africa

  • Polyacrylamide degradation and its implications in ...

    2018-9-7 · Xiong, B., Loss, R.D., Shields, D. et al. Polyacrylamide degradation and its implications in environmental systems. npj Clean Water 1, 17 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41545-018 …

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  • Chapter 2 Sustainability in South Africa

    2018-6-12 · times in South Africa in biodiversity (including ecosystems and species), our ground and surface waters are polluted; our use of land is often inefficient; and our air quality is not improving. In addition, we have specific instances of severe environmental pollution or degradation that have potentially

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  • Literature on Polyacrylamide Gels | Linda Chalker-Scott ...

    2013-4-1 · Almost half of the 16,942 km 2 of South Africa's subtropical thicket with a substantial Portulacaria afra (spekboom) component has been heavily degraded by domestic herbivores. The subtropical thicket biome is a drought-prone and water-stressed area, and many of the region's watersheds comprise of eroded landscapes clothed in degraded spekboom thicket.

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  • Hydrological implications of desertification: Degradation ...

    2019-1-1 · Soil crusting (surface sealing) is a widespread and serious problem throughout all nine provinces of South Africa and in neighboring countries, like Botswana, Namibia, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. It is a problem in extensive rangelands and game parks and under rain-fed cropping and irrigated agriculture.

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  • Review of existing knowledge on soil crusting in South Africa

    2021-2-8 · the significance of its economic, social and environmental functions, and outline drivers of deforestation and land degradation. A summary of climate histories and trends in southern Africa indicates a robust pattern of rising temperatures, with some statistically significant changes in rainfall. Climate models project increased

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  • Forests, rangelands and climate change in Southern Africa

    2017-1-5 · The experiment aimed to test the potential for structurally diverse re-vegetation in disturbed and degraded sites. Restoration treatments were (1) direct seeding, (2) mulching with plant material, (3) mulching with animal manure, (4) micro-catchments, and (5) brush packing with Galenia africana.

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  • Assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of rangeland ...

    2018-5-1 · Drought is a major feature of the climate of Southern Africa and often has a devastating impact. In the DROUGHT MANAGEMENT PLAN (DMP) put out by the South African Government, the issues that should be addressed include: Appropriate research plan Drought predictions Early warning and monitoring systems (satellite remote sensing)

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  • LESSON 4: DROUGHTS AND DESERTIFICATION -

    2019-2-2 · Widespread fracking activity in South Africa faces several challenges: technical readiness must be improved across several sectors to support the industry domestically (Academy of Science of South Africa 2016), the actual amount of recoverable resource is uncertain (de Kock et al. 2017), and at least in the highest courts, the bar for “sustainable” development is high given the various environmental and social protections afforded in the South …

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  • Local Perceptions of Hydraulic Fracturing Ahead of ...

    2020-8-19 · Abstract. This paper examines the concept of globalisation, its history, instruments and problems for the African continent. While identifying it as one of the recent developments currently changing the physiognomy of global politics, it specifically focuses on its challenges, consequences and implications for Africa particularly, in the realm of equality of membership, requisite inputs …

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  • 20 Years of Environment Impact Assessment in South Africa

    2018-6-12 · In respect of the Bill of Rights included in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (“the Constitution”), the citizens of South Africa have in terms of Section 24, the right to have the environment protected and to live in an environment that is …

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  • South Africa - DIW

    2021-7-10 · of South Africa contains its Central coal basin, most of the coal-fired power stations, surrounded by poor communities with several small rural towns dependent on coal for livelihoods. Local environmental degradation is visible with poor local air quality. Another negative impact on health is from acid mine drainage.

    Get Price
  • Land and environmental degradation and desertification in ...

    2021-2-17 · Land degradation is estimated to affect about 230 million hectares annually. Like conflict, drought desertification and environmental degradation have a debilitating effect on the poorest communities. During 1992, we witnessed at first hand the devastating impact of southern Africa's worst drought in living memory.

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  • Forests, rangelands and climate change in Southern Africa

    2021-2-8 · the significance of its economic, social and environmental functions, and outline drivers of deforestation and land degradation. A summary of climate histories and trends in southern Africa indicates a robust pattern of rising temperatures, with some statistically significant changes in rainfall. Climate models project increased

    Get Price
  • Hydrological implications of desertification: Degradation ...

    2013-4-1 · Almost half of the 16,942 km 2 of South Africa's subtropical thicket with a substantial Portulacaria afra (spekboom) component has been heavily degraded by domestic herbivores. The subtropical thicket biome is a drought-prone and water-stressed area, and many of the region's watersheds comprise of eroded landscapes clothed in degraded spekboom thicket.

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  • SUPPORTING JUST TRANSITIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    2020-10-5 · CONTENT Acknowledgements 3 Executive summary 6 Introduction 8 About the Climate Investment Funds (CIF) 8 South Africa 9 Objective and Intention of the Case Study 9 Importance and Principles of Just Transitions 10 Case study approach 11 Context 12 Climate Change and Just Transitions in South Africa 12 Coal in South Africa – Challenges and Opportunities in …

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  • Africa Review Report on DROUGHT AND DESERTIFICATION

    2012-9-11 · of the Africa Committee on Sustainable Development (ACSD5)/Regional Implementation Meeting (RIM) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 22 to 24 October 2007, for its insightful comments and input on the draft report, which greatly enriched this final version of the Africa regional review report on drought and desertification.

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  • Local Perceptions of Hydraulic Fracturing Ahead of ...

    2019-2-2 · Applications for exploratory shale gas development via hydraulic fracturing (fracking) have raised concern about energy development impacts in South Africa. Initially, focus was on the arid Karoo, but interest now includes KwaZulu-Natal, a populous, agricultural province with high cultural, ecological, and economic diversity. We conducted focus groups and an online survey to …

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  • Water In Crisis - Spotlight South Africa

    South Africa is a country located at the Southern Tip of Africa. About twice the size of Texas it is home to 49 million people. This country has been stricken by affects from the long standing apartheid to the devastation that diseases such as HIV/AIDS and TB have caused. Now another crisis looms in the distance: Water.

    Get Price
  • Chronology and controls of donga (gully) formation in the ...

    2013-10-30 · The OSL-based approach to constraining the timing of donga formation adopted in this study has broader implications for assessment of the drivers of historical and contemporary donga (gully) formation elsewhere in South Africa and other drylands, and may help to inform management strategies for degrading lands.

    Get Price
  • 20 Years of Environment Impact Assessment in South Africa

    2018-6-12 · In respect of the Bill of Rights included in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (“the Constitution”), the citizens of South Africa have in terms of Section 24, the right to have the environment protected and to live in an environment that is …

    Get Price
  • Hydrological implications of desertification: Degradation ...

    2013-4-1 · Almost half of the 16,942 km 2 of South Africa's subtropical thicket with a substantial Portulacaria afra (spekboom) component has been heavily degraded by domestic herbivores. The subtropical thicket biome is a drought-prone and water-stressed area, and many of the region's watersheds comprise of eroded landscapes clothed in degraded spekboom thicket.

    Get Price
  • cationic polyacrylamide flocculant granule cpam for ...

    2021-6-14 · Polyacrylamide degradation and its implications in High molecular weight (10 6 –3 × 10 7 Da) polyacrylamide (PAM) is commonly used as a flocculant in water and wastewater treatment, as a soil conditioner, and as a viscosity modifier and friction . Get Price

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  • Forests, rangelands and climate change in Southern Africa

    2021-2-8 · the significance of its economic, social and environmental functions, and outline drivers of deforestation and land degradation. A summary of climate histories and trends in southern Africa indicates a robust pattern of rising temperatures, with some statistically significant changes in rainfall. Climate models project increased

    Get Price
  • Economics of Land Degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    2015-11-12 · Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has ample opportunities to become the future breadbasket of the world. While crop yield gaps—the difference between potential and actual yield (Lobell et al. 2009)—in other regions are narrow and closing, SSA has the widest yield gap of maize, rice, and wheat in the world (Nkonya et al. 2013).For example, average maize yield in the tropical lowlands …

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  • Evaluation of selected South African medicinal plants for ...

    2005-5-13 · The prevalence of HIV in South Africa at the end of 2002 was estimated at 26.5%, with about 4 million people infected (Department of Health, 2003). The use of medicinal plants is widespread in South Africa and a good proportion of HIV/AIDS patients, for traditional and financial reasons, seek relief from traditional healers who administer ...

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  • Environment and health in South Africa: Gains, losses,

    2011-7-6 · South Africans face a range of preventable environmental hazards to their health, many of which are rooted in the country's colonial and apartheid past, and ongoing poverty and inequality. Since the advent of democracy in the country, government has made considerable progress in improving living conditions and in developing the legal framework to prevent and manage …

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  • Land and environmental degradation and desertification

    2021-2-17 · Land degradation is estimated to affect about 230 million hectares annually. Like conflict, drought desertification and environmental degradation have a debilitating effect on the poorest communities. During 1992, we witnessed at first hand the devastating impact of southern Africa's worst drought in living memory.

    Get Price
  • South Africa - DIW

    2021-7-10 · of South Africa contains its Central coal basin, most of the coal-fired power stations, surrounded by poor communities with several small rural towns dependent on coal for livelihoods. Local environmental degradation is visible with poor local air quality. Another negative impact on health is from acid mine drainage.

    Get Price
  • Measured gas emissions from four landfills in South Africa ...

    2004-12-1 · Measured gas emissions from four landfills in South Africa and some implications for landfill design and methane recovery in semi-arid climates A. B. Fourie and J. W. F. Morris Waste Management & Research 2004 22 : 6 , 440-453

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  • Cationic polyacrylamide copolymers (PAMs):

    2018-5-18 · Cationic polyacrylamide copolymers (PAMs) are used for sludge dewatering in municipal waste water treatment and might enter the environment by spreading of the sludge on agricultural land. Concern has been expressed since little is known about the degradation of PAMs in soils. To obtain detailed information on the polymer’s fate in the soil compartment, the degradation …

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  • Trends, patterns and determinants of long-acting ...

    2019-6-4 · RESEARCH ARTICLE Trends, patterns and determinants of long-acting reversible methods of contraception among women in sub-Saharan Africa Sunday A. Adedini ID 1,2*, Olusola Akintoye Omisakin3, Oluwaseyi Dolapo Somefun2 1 Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa…

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  • Design of biodegradable, implantable devices towards ...

    South Africa is a country located at the Southern Tip of Africa. About twice the size of Texas it is home to 49 million people. This country has been stricken by affects from the long standing apartheid to the devastation that diseases such as HIV/AIDS and TB have caused. Now another crisis looms in the distance: Water.

    Get Price
  • Water In Crisis - Spotlight South Africa

    2004-12-1 · Measured gas emissions from four landfills in South Africa and some implications for landfill design and methane recovery in semi-arid climates A. B. Fourie and J. W. F. Morris Waste Management & Research 2004 22 : 6 , 440-453

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  • Measured gas emissions from four landfills in South Africa ...

    Corresponding Author. SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700 South Africa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700 South Africa

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  • Implications for public health demands alternatives to ...

    South Africa relies on its coal mines for 80% of its energy supply and that needs to change. South Africa needs to look at new ways to generate clean energy for sustainable economic and social development and to reduce its dependency on coal. Bold and achievable targets to generate clean energy must be investigated and implemented.

    Get Price
  • South Africa's Green Economy Strategy | Sustainable ...

    2021-2-17 · As above, moderate degradation is assumed to correspond to a current rate of erosion (in excess of replaceable) of 20t/ha per year (equivalent to an horizon thickness of 1.33 mm). Let it be assumed that replacement of soil by natural processes is at a rate ranging from 0.1-1.0 mm per year, equivalent to 1.5-15.0 t/ha.

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  • Chapter 7 - Economic consequences of land degradation

    2020-9-3 · 19 pandemic in Africa, argues that COVID-19 presents a unique opportunity for Africa to re-think its development pol-icies. It presents policy options to help African countries to build back better - more inclusive, equitable and sustainable economies post-COVID-19. Countries are encouraged to fol-

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  • UILDING BACK BETTER Policies for Building Resilient ...

    2020-5-29 · To stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature. WWF is in over 100 countries, on 5 continents WWF was founded in 1961 WWF has over 5,000 staff worldwide WWF has over 5 million supporters +100 +5M +5,000 1961 2012 REPORT NP CLIMATES OF NEPAL AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS...

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  • Land Degradation Neutrality - IUCN

    2017-9-28 · Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), given its close links with other environmental and sustainable development challenges, including poverty, climate change and biodiversity loss. Adoption of Land Degradation Neutrality in the Rio+20 Outcome Document “The future we want” and the

    Get Price
  • Africa Review Report on DROUGHT AND DESERTIFICATION

    2012-9-11 · of the Africa Committee on Sustainable Development (ACSD5)/Regional Implementation Meeting (RIM) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 22 to 24 October 2007, for its insightful comments and input on the draft report, which greatly enriched this final version of the Africa regional review report on drought and desertification.

    Get Price
  • Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED ...

    2021-5-25 · inequality should be back down to its 1994 level, and South Africa should count 8.3 million poor people (at 1.90 a day), down from almost 10.5 million in 2017. But the number of poor people could be brought down further, to 4 million by 2030, through selected policy interventions. They include, in the short term,

    Get Price
  • SOUTH AFRICA ECONOMIC UPDATE - World Bank

    2021-4-16 · Hypertension has a complex pathogenesis and symptoms appear in advanced disease. Dysregulation of gene expression regulatory factors like microRNAs has been reported in disease development. Identifying biomarkers which could help understand the pathogenesis and prognosis of hypertension is essential. The study's objective was to investigate microRNA expression …

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  • MicroRNA Profiles in Normotensive and Hypertensive South ...

    2013-10-30 · The OSL-based approach to constraining the timing of donga formation adopted in this study has broader implications for assessment of the drivers of historical and contemporary donga (gully) formation elsewhere in South Africa and other drylands, and may help to inform management strategies for degrading lands.

    Get Price
  • Urbanization in Africa: challenges and opportunities for ...

    2020-4-24 · South Africa. UNICEF South Africa COVID-19 Situation Report No. 16, as of 1-31 May 2021 Format Situation Report Source. UNICEF; Posted 9 Jun 2021 Originally published 9 Jun 2021. South Africa + 8 more

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  • Chronology and controls of donga (gully) formation in the ...

    2021-1-11 · Overall structure of Tl-Cyn. To gain insight into the Tl-Cyn structure, activity and enable its rational design, we have determined the crystal structure of Tl-Cyn at 2.2 Å resolution.

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  • College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science

    In South Africa, potato is an important food security crop widely cultivated by smallholder farmers due to its extensive adaptation characteristics. However, drought adaptive responses of potato genotypes vary under ...

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  • Land Degradation Neutrality - IUCN

    2017-9-28 · Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), given its close links with other environmental and sustainable development challenges, including poverty, climate change and biodiversity loss. Adoption of Land Degradation Neutrality in the Rio+20 Outcome Document “The future we want” and the

    Get Price
  • GENERATION IN SOUTH - Sustainable Energy Africa - Home

    2017-7-17 · GENERATION IN SOUTH AFRICA 4.1 Background South Africa has the high potential of using solar energy as a renewable energy source with some provinces having the insolation of about 4.5-6.5 kWh/m2 (Chang et al 2011). Under IRP2010 the country has set itself a target of about 8400 MW of electricity generation using Solar PV by 2030. On

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  • ZA 20 - WWF

    2020-6-12 · affordable and nutritious food. South Africa is considered a food secure state nationally. However, a recent study by Oxfam (2014) highlights the level of household food insecurity and malnutrition. It shows that South Africa produces enough calories to feed every one of its 53 million people, yet the reality is that one in four

    Get Price
  • SOUTH AFRICA ECONOMIC UPDATE - World Bank

    2021-5-25 · inequality should be back down to its 1994 level, and South Africa should count 8.3 million poor people (at 1.90 a day), down from almost 10.5 million in 2017. But the number of poor people could be brought down further, to 4 million by 2030, through selected policy interventions. They include, in the short term,

    Get Price
  • Water Wise - Water Situation in South Africa

    2021-7-13 · Founded in 1889, Saint Leo University is a leading Catholic teaching institution that enrolls more than 16,000 students across our traditional Florida campus, more than 40 education center and office locations, and online degree programs.

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  • Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED ...

    2017-1-10 · definite positive impact on trends in urban growth and its management. 2. Background Lesotho is a mountainous enclave surrounded by the Republic of South Africa (RSA). It has an approximate land area of 30 555 square kilometers. Lesotho's resource base is very limited, with only 9% of the total land area being arable, and is gradually declining

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  • International Journal of African Catholicism | IJAC Archives

    South Africa relies on its coal mines for 80% of its energy supply and that needs to change. South Africa needs to look at new ways to generate clean energy for sustainable economic and social development and to reduce its dependency on coal. Bold and achievable targets to generate clean energy must be investigated and implemented.

    Get Price
  • ZA 20 - WWF

    2020-6-12 · affordable and nutritious food. South Africa is considered a food secure state nationally. However, a recent study by Oxfam (2014) highlights the level of household food insecurity and malnutrition. It shows that South Africa produces enough calories to feed every one of its 53 million people, yet the reality is that one in four

    Get Price
  • Running agarose and polyacrylamide gels

    2011-6-17 · The basics. Agarose gels can be used to resolve large fragments of DNA. Polyacrylamide gels are used to separate shorter nucleic acids, generally in the range of 1−1000 base pairs, based on the concentration used (Figure 1). These gels can be run with or without a denaturant. Gels that are run without a denaturant are referred to as native gels.

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  • Design of biodegradable, implantable devices towards ...

    2021-2-17 · As above, moderate degradation is assumed to correspond to a current rate of erosion (in excess of replaceable) of 20t/ha per year (equivalent to an horizon thickness of 1.33 mm). Let it be assumed that replacement of soil by natural processes is at a rate ranging from 0.1-1.0 mm per year, equivalent to 1.5-15.0 t/ha.

    Get Price
  • Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED ...

    2008-12-14 · and a steady decline of environmental degradation,62 as seen in chart 2.1.1. The issue of whether environmental degradation i) increases monotonically, ii) decreases monotonically, or iii) first increases and then declines along a country’s development path, has critical implications for policy. A monotonic increase of environmental

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  • Chapter 7 - Economic consequences of land degradation

    2017-1-10 · definite positive impact on trends in urban growth and its management. 2. Background Lesotho is a mountainous enclave surrounded by the Republic of South Africa (RSA). It has an approximate land area of 30 555 square kilometers. Lesotho's resource base is very limited, with only 9% of the total land area being arable, and is gradually declining

    Get Price
  • CHAPTER 2 ECONOMIC GROWTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    2021-5-28 · tion” in 1997.The concept of product re-design has since then spread as seen in the number of manuals and sector specific supporting materials now produced in many languages. As a result and based on experience gained, ecodesign has evolved through Design for Environment (DfE) to the broader concept of D4S – which

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  • Urban Environmental Problems: Implications of Rapid ...

    2017-8-3 · As at 2014, South Africa’s total primary energy consumption was satisfied by coal (70%), oil (23%), natural gas (3%), nuclear energy (3%) and renewable energies (1%). Thus, South Africa …

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  • Design for Sustainability - United Nations Environment ...

    2014-9-8 · Academic Journals - Academic Journals - published articles. View: All. Page 309 of 1219, showing 50 records out of 60922 total, starting on record 15401, ending on 15450. African Journal of Agricultural Research. Pre-breeding of elephant grass for energy purposes and biomass analysis in Campos dos Goytacazes- RJ, Brazil. 4 September 2014.

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  • The environmental, socioeconomic, and health impacts of ...

    2017-2-13 · In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the production and use of woodfuel remains an important socio-economic activity with more than 70% of the population relying on woodfuel as their primary household energy source. Despite their socio-economic significance, woodfuel value chains are often viewed negatively due to their association with detrimental health and environmental impacts.

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  • Analysis on the Causes of Deforestation and Forest ...

    2011-1-28 · Keywords: Deforestation and forest degradation (D&FD), population growth, shifting cultivation, unsustainable logging, and DPSIR framework. Introduction Deforestation and forest degradation (D&FD) are amongst the major global environmental problems the world is trying to solve as vast areas of forest cover are being lost on a daily basis.

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  • 4IR - Its implications for South Africa

    2019-9-19 · 4IR - Its implications for South Africa Mymoena Ismail, CEO: NEMISA. What is the 4th industrial revolution (4IR)? Digital Economy So what is this 4IR? They all refer to the same economy. Knowledge Economy Information Society etc and the real economy are not separate.

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  • REPORT - Panda

    2020-7-7 · In addition, malnutrition in all its forms is evident not only in the region but across the continent. Urbanisation is also on the increase. Estimates suggest that almost 50% of southern Africa’s people will reside in urban areas by 2025, with Angola, Botswana and South Africa at 70%.

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  • Agenda 21 - South Africa

    2011-3-8 · This information was provided by the Government of South Africa to the fifth and sixth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last …

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  • Protected Areas – an overview

    2019-4-27 · Protected Areas – an overview. “Protected areas provide livelihoods for nearly 1.1 billion people.”. “Protected areas are the primary source of drinking water for over a third of the world’s largest cities.”. “The value of mangroves as coastal protection has been estimated to be as much as US 300,000 per kilometer of coastline.”.

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  • Potent inhibition of microRNA in vivo without degradation ...

    2008-11-16 · When the RNA sample is separated on a polyacrylamide gel by electrophoresis, the PNA-bound ASO is shifted on the gel and migration of free PNA will also be retarded compared to the miRNA due to its neutral charge. This is important, as the PNA is the same sequence as the miRNA and will be detected by the northern probe.

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  • Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials - 2nd ...

    2002-5-1 · Investigation of organic matter and biomarkers from Diepkloof Rock Shelter, South Africa: Insights into Middle Stone Age site usage and palaeoclimate. Journal of Archaeological Science 2017, 85, 51-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.011.

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  • Analytical Pyrolysis of Humic Substances: Pitfalls ...

    2021-1-4 · The Atlantic Forest contains a huge variety of tree types and unique vegetation, including the pau brasil, the national tree of Brazil, which gave the country its name. Researchers analysed 1,819 surveys, which considered the climate, soil, level of forest degradation and size of the remaining forest.

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