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making process of study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride

  • Study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride

    2021-1-1 · This study focused on investigate on the performance of Poly Ferric Chloride (PFC) as a flocculant for flocculation process in tannery wastewater treatment due to its advantages which could apply in a wide range of industries to help remove materials suspended in water.

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  • Optimization of coagulation with ferric chloride as a ...

    2017-8-1 · Optimal conditions for coagulation were 5.58 pH and 26.38 mg L −1 of Fe 3+. Coagulation and sand filtration pretreatment reduced membrane fouling 4 to 19 times. Membrane fouling after coagulation and sand filtration was mostly reversible.

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  • Coagulation behavior of polyaluminum chloride:

    2015-6-1 · The optimal mechanism at final pH < 7.0 is charge neutralization. Satisfactory coagulation efficiency could be obtained with either charge neutralization coagulation or sweep coagulation at the final pH values from 7.0 to 10.0. The coagulation process of PACl and the formation of PACl precipitates have the same optimal pH value.

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  • Preparation and Characteristics of Polyaluminium

    Coagulation mechanisms of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) at various dosages were studied using a conventional jar test at different final and initial pH values during treating kaolin suspension. The optimal final pH and dosages for PACl were obtained based on residual turbidity and zeta potential of flocs. The coagulation zones at various PACl ...

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  • Coagulation behavior of polyaluminum chloride:

    2020-11-17 · 2.2. CEPT process Regarding the aim of our study, the experiment was divided into two phases. Batch tests were applied to select an optimal chemical coagulant from polyalumin-ium chloride (PAC), polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFC), poly ferric sulfate (PFS) (individual or couple with poly acrylamide [PAM]) during the first phase. At the second

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  • Feasibility and optimization of wastewater treatment by ...

    2021-6-7 · According to the above tests, the optimum conditions for the leaching process can be determined as follows: hydrochloric acid concentration of 4.0 mol/L, liquid–solid ratio of 7:1, ferric chloride dosage of 4%, leaching temperature of 70 °C, leaching time of 90 min and stirring intensity of 500 rpm.

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  • Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) - Formula, Test, Colour, Uses ...

    2013-10-15 · However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca(2+) and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal.

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  • Comprehensive Recovery of Valuable Metals From

    Results: The most optimal efficiency conditions of poly aluminum chloride were pH=8, rapid mixing of 120rpm and optimal dose of 5ppm which was 93.14% in pH=8 and 93.80% for optimal dose of 5ppm. The most optimal condition for poly ferric sulfate included pH=8, rapid mixing of 120 rpm and optimal …

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  • Feasibility and optimization of wastewater treatment by ...

    2020-11-17 · 2.2. CEPT process Regarding the aim of our study, the experiment was divided into two phases. Batch tests were applied to select an optimal chemical coagulant from polyalumin-ium chloride (PAC), polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFC), poly ferric sulfate (PFS) (individual or couple with poly acrylamide [PAM]) during the first phase. At the second

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  • Optimizing Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment

    2019-3-16 · The optimal coagulant (15 mg/L ferric chloride) and flocculant (0.5 mg/L poly aluminum chloride (PACl)) combination achieved total COD, soluble COD, total suspended solids (TSS), and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies of 76, 58, 89, and 84, respectively, in a full-scale primary clarifier operation. In doing so the organic matter and ...

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  • Feasibility and optimization of wastewater

    Feasibility of this process for wastewater treatment were investigated in detail by comparing the removal performance of three inorganic chemical coagulants (polyaluminium chloride, polyaluminium ferric chloride [PAFC] and poly ferric sulfate) individual or couple with poly acrylamide, optimizing the conditions during CEPT by both single factor ...

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  • Ferric Chloride Market | 2020-2027 | Industry Report ...

    Ferric chloride (FeCl3) is widely used in the manufacturing of printed circuit boards for etching process. PCBs are used for making electronic circuits. The global economy is rigorously experiencing technological developments, which is further increasing the demand for PCBs.

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  • Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) - Formula, Test, Colour, Uses ...

    The results showed that poly aluminum ferric chloride (PAFC) was chosen as an optimum coagulant for effective treatment. The optimal coagulation precipitation conditions were determined as follows: pH8, dosage of PAFC 1200mg/l, PAM100mg/l, sedimentation time 30 min.

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  • Study on Environmental Materials with Treatment

    This study aimed at, pre-treatment of sweet potato starch wastewater and acquisition the application conditions of environmental materials though coagulation precipitation. The removal rates of COD and turbidity were investigated by process to find kind and quantity of suitable coagulant, quantity of coagulate aids, pH and setting time. The results showed that poly aluminum ferric chloride ...

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  • Study on Environmental Materials with Treatment

    2012-8-9 · This paper reports pioneering work in identifying an alternative coagulation agent of wastewater treatment, given the availability of commonly used agents are of a higher cost relative to more natural sources, such as soil. The alternative proposed is laterite soil from northern Malaysia because it contains high amounts of Al and Fe, which are well-known coagulants.

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  • Optimal conditions of Al and Fe extraction from

    2020-11-18 · Ferric chloride (FeCl3) has widespread use as an etchant in the PCB industry and for photochemical machining. Although the corrosion process of copper in …

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  • Corrosion inhibition of copper in ferric chloride ...

    2021-4-28 · In this study, silver nanowires (AgNWs) were prepared by the polyol method using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as the silver source and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the structure-directing agent under different reaction conditions. In order to obtain AgNWs with good uniformity and electrical conductivity, the orthogonal experiment method was adopted to design an experimental scheme.

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  • Optimizing Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment

    2019-3-16 · The optimal coagulant (15 mg/L ferric chloride) and flocculant (0.5 mg/L poly aluminum chloride (PACl)) combination achieved total COD, soluble COD, total suspended solids (TSS), and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies of 76, 58, 89, and 84, respectively, in a full-scale primary clarifier operation. In doing so the organic matter and ...

    Get Price
  • Feasibility and optimization of wastewater treatment by ...

    2020-11-17 · 2.2. CEPT process Regarding the aim of our study, the experiment was divided into two phases. Batch tests were applied to select an optimal chemical coagulant from polyalumin-ium chloride (PAC), polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFC), poly ferric sulfate (PFS) (individual or couple with poly acrylamide [PAM]) during the first phase. At the second

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  • Abstract - CORE

    2018-4-16 · Coagulation process in water treatment is a special place so many studies on the optimum type of coagulant to remove turbidity and color. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of conventional coagulant (polyaluminum chloride, ferric sulfate, ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate and aluminum sulfate) was performed

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  • Feasibility and optimization of wastewater treatment

    The optimal working condition could be at pH 7.0, settling time 15 min, and velocity gradient of 174.80 and 15.56 s−1 for mixing and reaction phase respectively. While the coagulant dosage depends on raw water attributes, which had a decisive effect on CEPT treatment performances. However, the three coagulants behaved poorly in nitrogen removal.

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  • Open AccessJournals | List of Open Access Journals ...

    Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal is a dynamic journal for publishing research reports, short communications, Critical Reviews in Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Agronomy, Forestry, Animal Science, Food Technology, etc. The goal of the open access journalsis to publish articles on new and emerging fields and concepts for providing future directions to promote ...

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  • Structure–conductivity correlation in ferric chloride ...

    2006-7-5 · Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) matrix has been chemically doped (redox doping) by ferric chloride (FeCl 3) with different molar concentrations to get P3HT–FeCl 3 charge-transfer complexes. The effect of redox doping on photo-physical, structural, and morphological properties and dc electrical conductivity of P3HT matrices has been examined.

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  • Global Poly Aluminium Ferric Chloride (PAFC) Market

    Poly Aluminium Ferric Chloride (PAFC) Market by Product Type (Aluminum Method, Active Aluminum Hydroxide Method, Aluminum Oxide Method, Aluminum Chloride Method), by Application (Drinking Water Treatment, Industrial Water Treatment, Municipal Water Treatment) - Overall In-depth Analysis, Global Market Share, Top Trends, Professional & Technical Industry Insights 2020 - 2026

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  • Immobilized Microbial Catalytic Oxidation Preparation

    2019-3-19 · A novel inorganic polymer flocculant, biopolymeric ferric sulfate (BPFS), was prepared by immobilization technology of microorganisms and by oxidation of ferrous sulfate using domestic Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ( T. f ) under acidic condition. T. f was isolated on the agarose single-plate medium, which exhibited an unusual trait on the utilization of low concentration of the nitrogen source ...

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  • Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion ...

    aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate under boiler conditions, and to develop a model to describe the sulfation of potassium chloride by sulfate addition during biomass combustion. A fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a tube reactor were used to study the decomposition kinetics and

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  • Study on the effect of chitosan conditioning on sludge ...

    2019-2-1 · Activated sludge process is one of the main widely used methods in domestic sewage and industrial waste water treatment currently. A large amount of residual sludge is produced during domestic sewage treatment with the activated sludge process (Tang & Zhang 2014).The residual sludge contains a lot of nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter, and at the same time contains a ...

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  • Optimization and economic evaluation of modified ...

    2018-10-17 · Enhanced treatment of ceramic-tile industry wastewater was investigated by modified coagulation–flocculation process using combination of poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) with anionic (A300), cationic polymer (C270) and nonionic polymers. The effects of pH, PAC coagulant dose alone and with polymers dose in various combinations was studied by jar tests.

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  • Feasibility and optimization of wastewater treatment

    The optimal working condition could be at pH 7.0, settling time 15 min, and velocity gradient of 174.80 and 15.56 s−1 for mixing and reaction phase respectively. While the coagulant dosage depends on raw water attributes, which had a decisive effect on CEPT treatment performances. However, the three coagulants behaved poorly in nitrogen removal.

    Get Price
  • Structure–conductivity correlation in ferric chloride ...

    2006-7-5 · Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) matrix has been chemically doped (redox doping) by ferric chloride (FeCl 3) with different molar concentrations to get P3HT–FeCl 3 charge-transfer complexes. The effect of redox doping on photo-physical, structural, and morphological properties and dc electrical conductivity of P3HT matrices has been examined.

    Get Price
  • (PDF) Coagulation of bentonite suspension by ...

    Controlling Coagulation Process: From Zeta Potential to Streaming Potential By noureddine ait messaoudene and Dr. Ammar Mahjoubi Comparative study of floc characteristics with titanium tetrachloride against conventional coagulants: Effect of coagulant dose, …

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  • Immobilized Microbial Catalytic Oxidation Preparation

    2019-3-19 · A novel inorganic polymer flocculant, biopolymeric ferric sulfate (BPFS), was prepared by immobilization technology of microorganisms and by oxidation of ferrous sulfate using domestic Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ( T. f ) under acidic condition. T. f was isolated on the agarose single-plate medium, which exhibited an unusual trait on the utilization of low concentration of the nitrogen source ...

    Get Price
  • Study on the effect of chitosan conditioning on sludge ...

    2019-2-1 · Activated sludge process is one of the main widely used methods in domestic sewage and industrial waste water treatment currently. A large amount of residual sludge is produced during domestic sewage treatment with the activated sludge process (Tang & Zhang 2014).The residual sludge contains a lot of nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter, and at the same time contains a ...

    Get Price
  • Ultrasensitive Detection of Ferulic Acid Using Poly ...

    Furthermore, FTIR spectroscopy was also employed to investigate the reduction of the oxygen-containing groups in GO during the functionalized process [].As shown in Figure 2, after reduction of the GO (curve a) with hydrazine for 24 h, the FTIR peaks intensities in PDDA-G (curve b) corresponding to the oxygen functionalities, such as the C = O stretching vibration peak at 1724 cm −1, the C ...

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  • Progresses in Synthesis of Polycarboxylate

    2020-7-3 · The prerequisite to synthesize PCE was to prepare new macromonomers with controlled molecular mass, adjustable hydrophilic-lipophilic groups, long-chain alkyl groups, and large terminal hydroxyl groups as well. Structural modifications in the molecular scale of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE) would lead to changes in properties of dispersion and water retention as well …

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  • Assessment of Coagulants Efficiency in Water

    2016-10-3 · Many kinds of inorganic polymers have been developed, but, amongst them, polyaluminum chloride (PACl) is one of the most common kinds and has become most widely applied.The main objective in this research was the evaluation of three coagulants efficiency in the turbidity removal of Karoun river water in water treatment plant (WTP) of Kut-e Amir in different turbidity ranges of 0 to …

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  • Poly (deep eutectic solvents) as a new class of ...

    2020-10-9 · A new class of polymeric sorbents based on deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is introduced. These materials are obtained from simple and inexpensive precursors via an energy-efficient process. The primary benefit of these sorbents is that they possess the unique characteristics of DESs and porous materials simultaneously. Moreover, the possibility of tailoring deep eutectic solvents allows ...

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  • Comparison and optimization of the performance of

    2019-11-14 · This study aims to assess the efficiency of two natural-based coagulants, namely calcium lactate and tannic acid, and compare them with conventional coagulants, including polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride. Jar test experiments were performed on the raw inlet water of the Isfahan water treatment plant (IWTP) in Iran.

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  • poly aluminum chloride is benefit to subsequent

    Polyaluminium Chloride Process, Properties and Functions. Poly-Aluminium Chloride(PAC)is a kind of highly effective water purificiant, which is wildly used in the purification of table water, industry water, industry circulation water and wasted and polluted water from pharmacy industry, paper making industry and printing and dying industry, as well as life wasted water.

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  • humic acid removal from water by poly aluminium

    Abstract: Attapulgite clay and Poly aluminum chloride (PAC) combination process was adopted for enhanced coagulation on micro-polluted raw water, TOC and NH3-N served as water quality indexes. Results showed that, when the dosage of PAC was 15 mg/L and the dosage of attapulgite clay after 350 °C heat modification was 200 mg/L, the removal ...

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  • Multiple response optimization of the coagulation

    2016-5-18 · The objective of this study was to develop a multi-responses optimization method by an integrated UD-RSM experimental design for the coagulation process to improve the effluent quality from a …

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  • (PDF) Coagulation of bentonite suspension by ...

    Controlling Coagulation Process: From Zeta Potential to Streaming Potential By noureddine ait messaoudene and Dr. Ammar Mahjoubi Population Balance Model (PBM) for flocculation process: Simulation and experimental studies of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pretreatment

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  • Progresses in Synthesis of Polycarboxylate

    2020-7-3 · The prerequisite to synthesize PCE was to prepare new macromonomers with controlled molecular mass, adjustable hydrophilic-lipophilic groups, long-chain alkyl groups, and large terminal hydroxyl groups as well. Structural modifications in the molecular scale of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE) would lead to changes in properties of dispersion and water retention as well …

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  • Defining the most convenient coagulant for

    2015-9-1 · The results of defining the optimal dose of coagulant in Ardebil's raw water treatment plant in different seasons of the year 2014 Ferric Chloride (FeC13) Turbidity Remaining DOC Optimal Turbidity Removal Turbidity Removal Dose of Removal Percentage After Jar Percentage Matter mg/L Percentage (NTU) Test 55 3.15 35 14 97.14 75.53 3.18 22.5 13 98 ...

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  • Phosphorus Removal and Recovery from Digestate

    2019-11-1 · Alkali lignin is a component of the waste black liquor produced by the paper-making industry that is difficult to degrade. In recent years, the biological activities of lignin, such as free-radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity, have received increasing attention. Here, we prepared H3PW12O40/ZrO2 and used this catalyst together with the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ...

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  • H3PW12O40/ZrO2 and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium

    The ferric salt may be selected from the group consisting of ferric sulfate, ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferrous chloride, and any combination thereof. The ferric salt may be added in an amount of between 1-300 ppm. The dithiocarbamate material may be between 50% to 300% of the amount (in ppm) of ferric salt added to the liquid.

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  • Comparison and optimization of the performance of

    2019-11-14 · This study aims to assess the efficiency of two natural-based coagulants, namely calcium lactate and tannic acid, and compare them with conventional coagulants, including polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride. Jar test experiments were performed on the raw inlet water of the Isfahan water treatment plant (IWTP) in Iran.

    Get Price
  • Multiple response optimization of the coagulation

    2016-5-18 · The objective of this study was to develop a multi-responses optimization method by an integrated UD-RSM experimental design for the coagulation process to improve the effluent quality from a …

    Get Price
  • Cost-effective removal of COD in the pre-treatment of ...

    2019-9-26 · Under the optimal operational conditions (pH = 7.5, T = 18 °C) the treatment of wastewater from paper industries by coagulation has led to a reduction of 70% COD for wastewater discharged. In terms of the investigated paper industry wastewater, polyaluminium chloride appears to be most suitable for treatment of high COD concentration.

    Get Price
  • (PDF) Coagulation of bentonite suspension by ...

    Controlling Coagulation Process: From Zeta Potential to Streaming Potential By noureddine ait messaoudene and Dr. Ammar Mahjoubi Population Balance Model (PBM) for flocculation process: Simulation and experimental studies of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pretreatment

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  • Expert System of a Sewage Treatment Plant for Wood

    2020-7-23 · preparations will be added to water: ferric chloride, poly-electrolyte and aluminium chloride, to decant the water pollutants by coagulation and flocculation (process where colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flakes), in a solid waste called flocs. In order that this process takes place under optimum conditions of

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  • compost leachate treatment using polyaluminium

    Compost leachate treatment using polyaluminium chloride. 2017-06-01· The work presented in this study is conducted on real samples rather than model water. According to the research, the following procedures are proposed for leachate treatment: coagulation using Polyaluminium Chloride (PACl) followed by nanofiltration.

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  • Chemical Treatment of Petroleum Wastewater and its

    2019-4-18 · J Chem Eng Process Technol 8: 324. doi: 10.4172/2157-7048.1000324. Page 2 of 9. oe 8 e 324 e g Poe eo a oe ae oa 257748 . Materials and Methods. Materials. The collection of wastewater under study is coming from petroleum company, situated in industrial area, El-Ain El-Sukhna, Suez, Egypt. The coagulant Ferric chloride (FeCl. 3.6H. 2. O) and ...

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  • Analysis Of Injection Moulding Process Parameters –

    2012-10-29 · Result Analysis was carried out by making ANOVA to determine percentage effect of each parameter on the quality characteristic. Experimental Study. 3.1 Injection Molding Process. Trials are taken on Milacron 110 Injection Molding Machine by injecting Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride (CPVC) material in 3/4th inch Tee mold. The specimen is shown ...

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  • Co-production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and

    2021-5-21 · To explore a competitive PHB-producing fermentation process, this study evaluated the potential for Methylobacterium sp. XJLW to produce simultaneously PHB and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) using methanol as sole carbon and energy source. The metabolic pathways of PHB and CoQ10 biosynthesis in Methylobacterium sp. XJLW were first mined based on the genomic and comparative …

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  • A critical study on efficiency of different materials for ...

    2013-3-13 · Fluoride is a persistent and non-biodegradable pollutant that accumulates in soil, plants, wildlife and in human beings. Therefore, knowledge of its removal, using best technique with optimum efficiency is needed. The present survey highlights on efficacy of different materials for the removal of fluoride from water. The most important results of extensive studies on various key factors (pH ...

    Get Price
  • Multiple response optimization of the coagulation

    2016-5-18 · The objective of this study was to develop a multi-responses optimization method by an integrated UD-RSM experimental design for the coagulation process to improve the effluent quality from a …

    Get Price
  • Optimal Reaction Conditions for Minimization of

    Corpus ID: 101606346. Optimal Reaction Conditions for Minimization of Energy and Byproducts in a Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Process @inproceedings{Ha1999OptimalRC, title={Optimal Reaction Conditions for Minimization of Energy and Byproducts in a Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Process}, author={Kyoung‐Su Ha and H. Rhee}, year={1999} }

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  • [PDF] A Study of the Optimal Process Conditions of

    This study has been carried out to determine the optimal process conditions of AZO:H2 thin films for the maximization of the transmittance of a blue GaN light-emitting diode (LED) with a wavelength of 470 nm. The Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO):H2 thin films were deposited on a sapphire substrate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system with varying substrate temperatures, working pressures ...

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  • (PDF) Coagulation of bentonite suspension by ...

    Controlling Coagulation Process: From Zeta Potential to Streaming Potential By noureddine ait messaoudene and Dr. Ammar Mahjoubi Population Balance Model (PBM) for flocculation process: Simulation and experimental studies of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pretreatment

    Get Price
  • Progresses in Synthesis of Polycarboxylate

    2020-7-3 · The prerequisite to synthesize PCE was to prepare new macromonomers with controlled molecular mass, adjustable hydrophilic-lipophilic groups, long-chain alkyl groups, and large terminal hydroxyl groups as well. Structural modifications in the molecular scale of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE) would lead to changes in properties of dispersion and water retention as well …

    Get Price
  • Determination of the Optimal Dosage of Aluminum

    2015-8-27 · the need to obtain an optimal operation point for the equipment. In this paper the optimal dosage of Aluminum Sulfate(Al 2 (SO 4) 3 18H 2 O) is determined using a model of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that, when faced with real time variations of turbidity is able to calculate an indicated dose of coagulant, with

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  • Defining the most convenient coagulant for

    2015-9-1 · The results of defining the optimal dose of coagulant in Ardebil's raw water treatment plant in different seasons of the year 2014 Ferric Chloride (FeC13) Turbidity Remaining DOC Optimal Turbidity Removal Turbidity Removal Dose of Removal Percentage After Jar Percentage Matter mg/L Percentage (NTU) Test 55 3.15 35 14 97.14 75.53 3.18 22.5 13 98 ...

    Get Price
  • H3PW12O40/ZrO2 and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium

    2019-11-1 · Alkali lignin is a component of the waste black liquor produced by the paper-making industry that is difficult to degrade. In recent years, the biological activities of lignin, such as free-radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity, have received increasing attention. Here, we prepared H3PW12O40/ZrO2 and used this catalyst together with the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ...

    Get Price
  • The feasibility of Cassia fistula gum with polyaluminum ...

    2015-2-6 · Thus, the present study focused on the potential of gums extracted from CF and PAC to reduce the color of reactive black 5 (RB5) and reactive blue 19 (RB19), together with the determination of the optimal factors, such as pH, agi-tation speed, initial dye concentration (IDC), coagulants dosage ( gum and CF PAC) and reaction time.

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  • A critical study on efficiency of different materials for ...

    2013-3-13 · Fluoride is a persistent and non-biodegradable pollutant that accumulates in soil, plants, wildlife and in human beings. Therefore, knowledge of its removal, using best technique with optimum efficiency is needed. The present survey highlights on efficacy of different materials for the removal of fluoride from water. The most important results of extensive studies on various key factors (pH ...

    Get Price
  • Preparation of poly ferric sulfate and the application

    2013-9-26 · Poly ferric sulfate (PFS) is a kind of polymeric coagulants widely used in China in the past 20 years and reveals certain advantages in advanced treatment of wastewater. In this paper, three samples were synthesized by different methods: sodium nitrite catalytic oxidation method (PFS-1), one-step method (PFS-2) and nitric acid oxidation method (PFS-3).

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  • Cost-effective removal of COD in the pre-treatment of ...

    2019-9-26 · Under the optimal operational conditions (pH = 7.5, T = 18 °C) the treatment of wastewater from paper industries by coagulation has led to a reduction of 70% COD for wastewater discharged. In terms of the investigated paper industry wastewater, polyaluminium chloride appears to be most suitable for treatment of high COD concentration.

    Get Price
  • Characteristics and Components of Poly-Aluminum

    2019-10-8 · Poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) is effective for controlling arsenate concentration than the . 74 . above-mentioned coagulants because PACl s more removearsenate than do conventional . 75 . coagulants, such as aluminum sulfate and chloride, at both acidic and alkaline pH, as well as at . 76 . neutral pH Fan et al. 2003

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  • On the importance of pH value in coagulation |

    2019-4-5 · However, in this case, the optimal pH for a mixture of HS + COM (pH 5.0–6.2) related to optimal pH ranges for the coagulation of HS (5.0–6.0) and COM peptides/proteins (5.0–6.7). The impact on coagulation of interactions between AOM and other impurities present in raw water are detailed by Pivokonský et al..

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  • Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris biomass harvesting by ...

    2018-6-28 · The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate chitosan flocculation performance in the harvesting of C. vulgaris biomass and determine its optimal dose, (2) to disclose the sedimentation properties of C. vulgaris biomass flocculated by chitosan, (3) to reveal the recyclability of the spent medium from flocculation to regrow microalgae and ...

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  • Removal of selenium from refinery wastewater - Nalco

    The ferric salt may be selected from the group consisting of ferric sulfate, ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, ferrous chloride, and any combination thereof. The ferric salt may be added in an amount of between 1-300 ppm. The dithiocarbamate material may be between 50% to 300% of the amount (in ppm) of ferric salt added to the liquid.

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  • Analysis and Improvement of Material Selection for

    2020-8-21 · Material failure mainly because of corrosion is a highly dangerous and expensive phenomenon in the offshore sector of the oil and gas industry, associated with severe negative consequences such as loss of asset, loss of production due to plant shutdown, loss of human life, and health, safety, and environment (HSE) problems (e.g. environmental pollution). Additionally, piping …

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  • Optimized and scalable synthesis of magnetic

    2020-11-4 · The latter optimization implies a considerable reduction in time and cost on the scaling up process. A 100 mL of Poly-NH 2-MNP will permit the execution of about 5000 RNA extraction/purification ...

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  • Poly Aluminum Chloride Market Revenue to Grow at ...

    2021-2-23 · Key Companies involved in the Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC) Market who are operating on a major scale are Gongyi Filter Industry Co., Ltd. (China), Feralco AB (Europe), Airedale Chemical (UK), Kemira Oyj (Finland), Kanoria Chemicals & Industries Limited (KCI) (India), GEO Speciality Chemicals (US), Synergy Multichem Pvt. Ltd. (India), USALCO (USA) and Grasim Industries Ltd. (India).Pune, …

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  • Nitrate Reduction by Zerovalent Iron: Effects of

    2004-3-20 · Recent studies have shown that zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as a chemical medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater nitrate remediation; however, the effects of commonly found organic and inorganic ligands in soil and sediments on nitrate reduction by Fe0 have not been well understood. A 25.0 mL nitrate solution of 20.0 mg of N L-1 (1.43 mM nitrate) was ...

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