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study on optimal conditions of high purity poly ferric chloride application

  • Study on optimal conditions of poly ferric chloride

    2021-1-1 · The application of PFC was conducted in batch test to find the optimum conditions including pH, PFC dose, and rotation speed in term of treating tannery wastewater performance. In addition, a common flocculant polyaluminium chloride (PAC) was chosen to compare with PFC in term of treatment efficiency and cost effective.

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  • Comparison of poly ferric chloride and poly titanium ...

    2021-1-28 · In their study, Galloux et al. pointed out that PTC is more efficient than ferric chloride, which is comparable to the results obtained from the current study (Galloux et al. 2015). Residual pH For PTC in optimum dosage (600 mg/L), the solution pH was reduced from 7 to 6.61, and for PFC in optimum dosage (800 mg/L), pH was reduced from 9 to 7.12 after the coagulation-flocculation process.

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  • Preparation and coagulation efficiency of

    2011-7-1 · The optimum coagulation pH range of PAFSiC 2.0/5 was 5.0–9.0, slightly wider than that of PAC (6.0–8.0). The process can be easily incorporated into high-purity graphite production plants, thereby reducing wastewater pollution and producing a valuable coagulant.

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  • Preparation and performance of a high purity poly

    2010-1-1 · The coagulation results also demonstrated that for the whole dose range studied, high-purity PACls removed more turbidity than conventional PACl. On the other hand, when the dose was greater than 4 mg L −1 as Al, the high-purity PACl showed great UV 254-absorbance removal capacity; which was even much greater at high does (e.g., 10 mg L −1). Relative low dose requirement of high-purity …

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  • Synthesis, purification and characterization of ...

    2015-5-26 · Considering the purity and yield of extracted (Al + Fe) b species in PAFC samples, the optimal separation conditions were as follows: organic solvents mixing ratio = 2:1:7 and the middle organic solvents dosage V 2 = 100 mL (V 1 = V 3 = 50 mL). 4.3. Characteristics of PAFC and (Al + Fe) b

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  • Efficiency Comparison of PolyDADMAC Coagulant

    2017-11-1 · The optimum doses of ferric chloride with PolyDADMAC were obtained at 15mg/L and 0/4mg/L, respectively. Under higher doses of PolyDADMAC, flocs showed stabilized in solution .In addition, PolyDADMAC also produced larger floc with higher settling velocity that need less time to settle.

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  • Modified coagulation processes using polyferric

    2021-4-7 · In a study, optimal doses for ferric chloride, alum, and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were reported 400, 300, and 200 mg/L, respectively, at optimum pH 7, and initial dye concentration of 25 mg/L with removal efficiencies of 81, 92, and 91%, respectively, for RB19 dye (Assadi et al. 2013). It indicates the superiority of PFC and PTC over ferric chloride.

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  • Hybrid coagulation/ozonation treatment of

    2016-3-15 · One of the most significant findings emerging from this study was that the best turbidity removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 5 for PACl and FeCl 3 and, at pH 6, for alum with maximum turbidity removal efficiencies of 98.74, 94.68, and 95.67 %. At high pH values, the flocs could not settle due to their small size.

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  • Comprehensive reutilization of iron in iron ore tailings ...

    2020-6-23 · Under these conditions, the iron recovery rate was 75.2% and the Fe 3+ content was 11.0% (w/w). Rotary evaporation. After the acid extraction by HCl under optimal conditions, the Fe content (11.0%) was less than the requirement of FeCl 3 flocculant standard in China (≥ 14.0%, GB/T 4482-2018). In addition, the residual HCl content in the extracted solution was 12.3%, much more than the …

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  • Study on Chromaticity Removal from Mineral Processing ...

    2021-3-30 · menci et al., researched decolorization of Drimaren Orange High Fast (DOHF) reactive azo dye from aqueous solutions with the Fenton oxidation process, the results showed that with the optimal conditions of 30 C temperature, pH 3, 300 mg/L DOHF concentra-tion, 15 mg/L Fe(II) and 100 mg/L H2O2, the chromaticity removal presented very good results [16].

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  • Preparation and performance of a high purity poly

    2010-1-1 · Poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) is one of the common coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. A new Chinese national standard of PACl has been implemented, where the concentration of insoluble substances, iron and heavy metals is to be controlled strictly, then researches on the preparation of high-purity PACl are needed.

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  • Enhanced Removal of Heavy Metals in Primary Treatment ...

    2013-9-30 · The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of alum, ferric chloride, and polymer on the removal efficiencies of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc from raw wastewater by CEPT, while attaining a TSS removal goal of 80%. The objectives were to define optimal system operating parameters, compare

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  • Synthesis, purification and characterization of ...

    2015-5-26 · Taking blast furnace dust and aluminum dross as raw material, PAFC with high (Al + Fe) b content was prepared via optimizing Al/Fe molar ratio and basicity condition in this study. Separation, purification and characterization of (Al + Fe) b were further investigated. The results showed that the (Al + Fe) b content in PAFC peaked at 36.67% with Al/Fe = 7:3 and basicity(B)=1.8.

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  • Preparation and Characteristics of Polyaluminium

    Clay-brine process employing activated clay, NaCl, HCl, and HF as raw materials is the primarily advanced technology to synthesize cryolite in the present industrial grade. However, plenty of byproducts of fluorine-containing waste HCl at the concentration of about 10%~12% could not be utilized comprehensively and are even hazardous to the environment.

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  • Modified coagulation processes using polyferric

    2021-4-7 · In a study, optimal doses for ferric chloride, alum, and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were reported 400, 300, and 200 mg/L, respectively, at optimum pH 7, and initial dye concentration of 25 mg/L with removal efficiencies of 81, 92, and 91%, respectively, for RB19 dye (Assadi et al. 2013). It indicates the superiority of PFC and PTC over ferric ...

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  • Study on Chromaticity Removal from Mineral Processing ...

    2021-3-30 · Study on Chromaticity Removal from Mineral Processing ... and polyaluminum ferric chloride (PAFCl) might be considered as the better coagulants because of their superior color removal even at small dosage and availability at a wider pH range of wastewater. Ferrous sulfate may ... optimal conditions, the efficiency of decolorization was about ...

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  • Global Poly Aluminium Ferric Chloride (PAFC)

    The study offers a decisive view on the Poly Aluminium Ferric Chloride (PAFC) by segmenting the market based on Product Type, Application, and region. Which market dynamics affect the business most? The report gives a nitty-gritty assessment of the market by featuring data on various viewpoints that incorporate drivers, restraints ...

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  • Ferric chloride as an efficient and reusable catalyst

    2015-6-17 · Where w 3 represents the weight of obtained methyl lactate, M(PLA)and M(methyl lactate) are the molar masses of the repeating unit of PLA and methyl lactate respectively.. Characterization of the main product. In order to confirm the structure of main product of methanolysis, the FTIR spectra of methyl lactate standard sample and the main product were recorded (Fig. 1).

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  • Effect of pH on floc properties and membrane

    2015-7-1 · Ferric chloride (FeCl 3) and polyferric chloride with basicity of 1.0 and 2.2 (denoted as PFC 10 and PFC 22) were used as coagulants and Fe (III) species in them was measured by a timed complexation spectroscopy method. Floc properties under four pH conditions were evaluated using a laser diffraction particle sizing device.

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  • Comprehensive reutilization of iron in iron ore

    2020-6-23 · A large number of iron ore tailings (IOTs) are produced in steel industry, posing threat to the environment during its storage and disposal. To effectively reutilize Fe in IOTs, we propose a comprehensive utilization scheme: (1) most Fe in IOTs is extracted by concentrated hydrochloric acid to form FeCl3 flocculants; (2) after separation from the FeCl3 flocculants, a small amount of Fe is ...

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  • Enhanced Removal of Heavy Metals in Primary Treatment ...

    2013-9-30 · The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of alum, ferric chloride, and polymer on the removal efficiencies of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc from raw wastewater by CEPT, while attaining a TSS removal goal of 80%. The objectives were to define optimal system operating parameters, compare

    Get Price
  • Global Poly Aluminium Ferric Chloride (PAFC)

    The study offers a decisive view on the Poly Aluminium Ferric Chloride (PAFC) by segmenting the market based on Product Type, Application, and region. Which market dynamics affect the business most? The report gives a nitty-gritty assessment of the market by featuring data on various viewpoints that incorporate drivers, restraints ...

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  • Research Article Simultaneously Recovering High-Purity ...

    2019-7-30 · out to determine the optimal conditions on polyaluminium chloride treatment with the change of the dose ( .mL), pH ( . .), temperature ( C), and the time ( min). Similarly, the optimal conditions were determined on cationic polyacrylamide treatment. Moreover, combina-tion of two occulants was carried out in the same ve

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  • (PDF) Effectiveness of poly Aluminium ferric

    Effectiveness of poly Aluminium ferric chloride for turbidity and color removal from low to medium turbid water. 2014. Afshin Ebrahimi. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. READ PAPER.

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  • High-poly-aluminum chloride sulfate coagulants

    2020-2-18 · High-poly-aluminum chloride sulfate (HPACS) coagulants with different [SO 4 2−]/[Al 3+] molar ratio (S) were prepared and proved to have high coagulation efficiency for the removal of humic acid and strong stability for storage and application.The results showed that the higher the SO 4 2− addition, the bigger the aluminum polymerization particles and the more the polymerization Al c ...

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  • (PDF) Flocculation activity of novel ferric chloride ...

    2014-4-2 · Thanks for helping us catch any problems with articles on DeepDyve. We'll do our best to fix them.

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  • Fabrication and characterization of poly(ferric

    2006-7-5 · Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) matrix has been chemically doped (redox doping) by ferric chloride (FeCl 3) with different molar concentrations to get P3HT–FeCl 3 charge-transfer complexes. The effect of redox doping on photo-physical, structural, and morphological properties and dc electrical conductivity of P3HT matrices has been examined.

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  • Structure–conductivity correlation in ferric chloride ...

    2018-10-17 · Chemicals. Poly-aluminum chloride (Al 2 (OH) n Cl 6−n.YH 2 O, Al 2 O 3 = 30%wt, basicity = 65% and pH = 3) was used as a coagulant and anionic (A 300), cationic (C 270) and nonionic polymers, as the coagulant aids were provided from AquaTech Company, Switzerland.. Preparation of solution. In order to prepare a 10 percent clear solution for coagulant, 10 g of PAC was dissolved to 100 mL of ...

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  • Optimization and economic evaluation of modified ...

    Aims: In this study, the effect of arsenite and arsenate removal in synthetic water by coagulation using ferric chloride (FeCl 3) as coagulant and chitosan as coagulant aid were investigated. b>Materials and Methods: A conventional jar test apparatus was used to evaluate the coagulation process. The effects of different conditions of pH (5.5-9), coagulant doses of FeCl 3 0-60 mg/l), Arsenic ...

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  • Research Article Simultaneously Recovering High-Purity ...

    2019-7-30 · out to determine the optimal conditions on polyaluminium chloride treatment with the change of the dose ( .mL), pH ( . .), temperature ( C), and the time ( min). Similarly, the optimal conditions were determined on cationic polyacrylamide treatment. Moreover, combina-tion of two occulants was carried out in the same ve

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  • The Efficiency Evaluation of Applying Poly Ferric Sulfate ...

    2019-10-29 · How to cite this article: Ali R T F.The Efficiency Evaluation of Applying Poly Ferric Sulfate and Perlite for Filtration. Civil Eng Res J. 2017; 2(5): 555599. DOI: 10.19080/CERJ.2017.02.555599 00123 Ciil ngineerin Research ournl This study aims to find effective factors on efficiency of

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  • Evaluation of Ferric Chloride as a Coagulant for Cork ...

    2019-5-25 · This is a two-part work on the chemistry of iron(III) as coagulant in the treatment of cork processing wastewater. The main aim of the first part was to determine the removal of organic matter as measured by reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD), polyphenols (P), and aromatic compounds (A) that can be obtained using this physicochemical process. To this end, jar-test experiments were …

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  • High-Purity Salts - Sigma-Aldrich

    High-purity materials are crucial components for the research, development, and production of advanced technologies which require optimum properties, performance, and quality. We offer ultra-high purity salts with purity exceeding 99.998% (less than 10 parts per million trace metal impurities). Our ISO 9001 quality management system ensures ...

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  • Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) - Formula, Test, Colour, Uses ...

    Poly alumnium chloride is typically used in water treatment industry, but also has related applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industri. Global Polyaluminium Chloride (PAC) market size will increase to xx Million US by 2025, from xx Million US in 2017, at a CAGR of xx% during the forecast period.

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  • Global Polyaluminium Chloride (PAC) Market 2019

    The new 3FM filter (Flexible Fiber Filter Module), implementing very fine nylon fibers as filtration media was tested at pilot scale for the first time on sea water. The objective was to improve the quality of raw sea water to produce water for injection into offshore wells for extraction purposes o …

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  • Application of the flexible fiber filter module (3FM ...

    2016-1-6 · Chromium pollution is a serious issue because of carcinogenic toxicities of the pollutants and low recovery rate of chromium because of the presence of organic, such as protein and fat. In this work, high recovery rate and high purity of the chromium ion were successfully prepared by the way of acid enzyme, flocculant, and Fenton oxidation. The experiments were characterized by TG, TOC, UV-VIS ...

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  • Simultaneously Recovering High-Purity Chromium

    2016-5-18 · The results of F = 18.175 > F 0.05,1,15 = 4.543 and R 2 = 0.90 for the PO 4 3−-P removal efficiency illustrated that the second-order polynomial model fitted the experimental results well.

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  • Multiple response optimization of the coagulation

    2006-5-3 · The physical properties of natural organic matter (NOM) flocs, such as size, growth rate, and strength, were investigated using a laser diffraction particle sizing device. Conditions were set such that varying carbon coagulant ratio and zeta potential could both be investigated. Results demonstrated a link between zeta potential and coagulation and flocculation performance, with the production ...

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  • Optimizing Coagulation Process for Low to High

    Approach: In this study, the effectiveness of aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride was evaluated at different pH values and coagulant dosage to find optimal operational conditions for low to high turbidity waters. The influence of lime, as a coagulant aid, on coagulation process was also studied.

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  • Some Studies on the Treatment of Industrial Waste

    2019-5-1 · The chemical formula of ferric chloride is FeCl3 (molecular weight 162.2 g/mole, density 2.90 g/cm3). Ferric chloride is produced as a solution from the oxidation of ferrous chloride with chlorine and it has the unusual distinction of being one of the purest and most concentrated forms of iron commercially available for water treatment.

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  • Optimizing Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment

    2019-3-16 · The optimal coagulant (15 mg/L ferric chloride) and flocculant (0.5 mg/L poly aluminum chloride (PACl)) combination achieved total COD, soluble COD, total suspended solids (TSS), and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies of 76, 58, 89, and 84, respectively, in a full-scale

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  • Application of polymeric ferric sulfate combined with ...

    2019-10-15 · Application of polymeric ferric sulfate combined with cross-frequency magnetic field in the printing and dyeing wastewater treatment ... and heavy metals with relatively high toxicity and poor biodegradability (Domingos et al. 2011; ... Reaction mode between Si and Fe and evaluation of optimal species in poly-silicic-ferric coagulant.

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  • Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes

    2017-10-18 · Currently, ferric chloride users are facing cost increases potentially as high as 40%. Many water plants can’t afford a 40% price increase, so they’re looking for alternative products. What are some substitutes for alum and ferric chloride? Substitutes include other aluminum and iron salts, like sodium aluminate and ferric sulfate, but ...

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  • Comparing Aluminium Sulfate and Poly-Aluminium

    2021-7-13 · removal efficiency in water treatment plants of Iran. In this study, the effectiveness of aluminium sulfate and poly-aluminum chloride was evaluated at different pH values and coagulant dosage in order to find optimal operational conditions for low to high turbidity waters. The influence of lime, as a coagulant aid, on coagulation

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  • Ahmed Yousif - Academia.edu

    The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effectiveness of three chemical coagulants-poly-aluminium chloride (PACl), ferric chloride (FeCl 3) and alum-in improving effluent quality, and (2) assess the properties of the sludge that is generated as by-product from the process for its suitability for land application.

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  • An alternative method for preparation of

    Abstract The drawbacks, high energy consumption, rigorous preparation condition and high impurity contents, have been well-recognized in the preparation of widely-used polyaluminum chloride via conventional methods in industrial scale. In order to overcome the drawbacks, the fresh aluminum hydroxide gels were proposed to prepare the polyaluminum chloride (PACG) in this study. The optimal ...

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  • A critical study on efficiency of different materials for ...

    2013-3-13 · Fluoride is a persistent and non-biodegradable pollutant that accumulates in soil, plants, wildlife and in human beings. Therefore, knowledge of its removal, using best technique with optimum efficiency is needed. The present survey highlights on efficacy of different materials for the removal of fluoride from water. The most important results of extensive studies on various key factors (pH ...

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  • Preparation of FeS 2 /TiO 2 nanocomposite films and

    2021-4-5 · Figure 6 shows the XPS spectra of FeS 2 /TiO 2 nanocomposite film prepared under hydrothermal reaction time of 12 h, ferric chloride concentration of 0.15 mmol/L and reaction temperature of …

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  • (PDF) Comparative study on the effectiveness of ...

    Comparative study on the effectiveness of hydrophobically modified cationic polyacrylamide groups in the flocculation of kaolin ... Flocculation activity of novel ferric chloride–polyacrylamide (FeCl 3PAM) hybrid polymer ... hybrid polymer. By Khai Ern Lee. Title: A review on application of flocculants in wastewater treatment. By Hugo Araujo ...

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  • Feasibility and optimization of wastewater treatment by ...

    2020-11-17 · Conditions optimization was realized by single factor analysis and orthogonal test designs. The objectives of this study are to (1) select an optimal coagulant for CEPT process; (2) evaluate the influence of agitation, coagulation time, set - tling time, pH and dosage thus determining an optimal working conditions combination. 2. Material and ...

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  • Effects on Effluent Quality of Industrial Waste Water ...

    2019-7-1 · The coagulant dosage of ferric chloride ranged between 0.5 g/L and 3 g/L, whereas the concentrations of polyelectrolyte and clay minerals varied between 5-75 mg/L and 25-750 mg/L, respectively. The optimal condition was obtained at the dosage 2 g/L ferric chloride at pH 11 with the COD removal efficiency of 71%.

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  • Optimized poly(methyl methacrylate)-mediated

    2018-8-3 · When we used ferric chloride solution (0.1 M, Sigma Aldrich, USA) at 25 °C, instead of the APS to etch the Cu etch process, we observed that the etch rate was high, but the transferred graphene surface was contaminated by an iron-based residue [47, 48], as shown in the optical microscope images in figure S1(a). We also observed, in our ...

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  • Comparison and optimization of the performance

    2019-11-14 · This study aims to assess the efficiency of two natural-based coagulants, namely calcium lactate and tannic acid, and compare them with conventional coagulants, including polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride. Jar test experiments were performed on the raw inlet water of the Isfahan water treatment plant (IWTP) in Iran.

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  • Effect of polyaluminium chloride water treatment sludge

    2015-9-19 · phosphorus release in any anoxic conditions (Yonghong et al., 2005). The use of PAC however, still ultimately yields sludge rich in aluminium hereafter referred to as polyaluminium water treatment sludge (PA-WTS), which poses a challenge to dispose. From a chemical point of view, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is similar to alum,

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  • Fast Precipitation of Acicular Goethite from Ferric ...

    2019-5-26 · The present study describes a simple and novel synthesis route for submicrometric acicular goethite (α-FeOOH) using high OH/Fe molar ratio (=5) and moderate temperature (30 and 70 °C). Two different alkaline sources (NaOH and Ca(OH)2) and two iron(III) sources (FeCl3·6H2O and Fe(NO3)3.9H2O) were investigated. FESEM, XRD, FTIR, N2 sorption isotherms, color evolution, and …

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  • Preparation and characterization of 10 B boric acid

    2016-7-28 · Boric acid is often added into coolant as neutron capture agent for pressurized water reactor, whose amount is influenced by its abundance and purity. Therefore, the preparation of enriched 10B boric acid with high purity is beneficial to nuclear industry. 10B is also used in developing tumor-specific boronated drugs in boron neutron capture therapy.

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  • On the importance of pH value in coagulation |

    2019-4-5 · However, in this case, the optimal pH for a mixture of HS + COM (pH 5.0–6.2) related to optimal pH ranges for the coagulation of HS (5.0–6.0) and COM peptides/proteins (5.0–6.7). The impact on coagulation of interactions between AOM and other impurities present in raw water are detailed by Pivokonský et al..

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  • Stability of capillaries coated with highly charged ...

    2011-6-3 · Stability of capillaries coated with highly charged polyelectrolyte monolayers and multilayers under various analytical conditions--application to protein analysis. Nehmé R(1), Perrin C, Cottet H, Blanchin MD, Fabre H.

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  • Comparison and optimization of the performance of

    2019-11-14 · This study aims to assess the efficiency of two natural-based coagulants, namely calcium lactate and tannic acid, and compare them with conventional coagulants, including polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride. Jar test experiments were performed on the raw inlet water of the Isfahan water treatment plant (IWTP) in Iran.

    Get Price
  • Feasibility and optimization of wastewater treatment by ...

    2020-11-17 · Conditions optimization was realized by single factor analysis and orthogonal test designs. The objectives of this study are to (1) select an optimal coagulant for CEPT process; (2) evaluate the influence of agitation, coagulation time, set - tling time, pH and dosage thus determining an optimal working conditions combination. 2. Material and ...

    Get Price
  • Effect of polyaluminium chloride water treatment sludge

    2015-9-19 · phosphorus release in any anoxic conditions (Yonghong et al., 2005). The use of PAC however, still ultimately yields sludge rich in aluminium hereafter referred to as polyaluminium water treatment sludge (PA-WTS), which poses a challenge to dispose. From a chemical point of view, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is similar to alum,

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  • The synthesis of well-defined poly(vinylbenzyl chloride ...

    The versatility of RAFT polymerization is illustrated by the control of the polymerization of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC), a highly functional monomer, with the aim of designing silica core–poly(VBC) shell nanoparticles. Optimal conditions for the control of VBC polymerization by RAFT are first established, followed by the use of the ...

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  • Study on the effect of chitosan conditioning on sludge ...

    2019-2-1 · Activated sludge process is one of the main widely used methods in domestic sewage and industrial waste water treatment currently. A large amount of residual sludge is produced during domestic sewage treatment with the activated sludge process (Tang & Zhang 2014).The residual sludge contains a lot of nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter, and at the same time contains a ...

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  • compost leachate treatment using polyaluminium

    Compost leachate treatment using polyaluminium chloride. 2017-06-01· The work presented in this study is conducted on real samples rather than model water. According to the research, the following procedures are proposed for leachate treatment: coagulation using Polyaluminium Chloride (PACl) followed by nanofiltration.

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  • Assessment of Coagulants Efficiency in Water

    2016-10-3 · Many kinds of inorganic polymers have been developed, but, amongst them, polyaluminum chloride (PACl) is one of the most common kinds and has become most widely applied.The main objective in this research was the evaluation of three coagulants efficiency in the turbidity removal of Karoun river water in water treatment plant (WTP) of Kut-e Amir in different turbidity ranges of 0 to …

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  • Production and Application of Lignosulfonates and ...

    2017-3-2 · In one study, 50 wt % lignosulfonates were reacted at 0.3:1 (w/w) H 2 O 2 /lignosulfonates for 0.5 h at 60 °C and pH 10. 89 Nevertheless, oxidation with H 2 O 2 can extensively degrade the lignosulfonate structure, rather than reacting with the reactive sites, which may introduce difficulties into the practical application of this process. 90 ...

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  • On the importance of pH value in coagulation |

    2019-4-5 · However, in this case, the optimal pH for a mixture of HS + COM (pH 5.0–6.2) related to optimal pH ranges for the coagulation of HS (5.0–6.0) and COM peptides/proteins (5.0–6.7). The impact on coagulation of interactions between AOM and other impurities present in raw water are detailed by Pivokonský et al..

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  • Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Smart

    2013-2-4 · The ferric laurate was precipitated by adding 10% aqueous ferric chloride dropwise to the obtained solution. By controlling the addition of ferric chloride solution, the pH was adjusted to 6 and 8. Finally, the suspension was transferred to a 1‐L measuring flask and 30 mL of ferric …

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  • Preparation of poly ferric sulfate and the application

    2013-9-26 · Poly ferric sulfate (PFS) is a kind of polymeric coagulants widely used in China in the past 20 years and reveals certain advantages in advanced treatment of wastewater. In this paper, three samples were synthesized by different methods: sodium nitrite catalytic oxidation method (PFS-1), one-step method (PFS-2) and nitric acid oxidation method (PFS-3).

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  • Non-Immunotherapy Application of LNP-mRNA:

    2021-5-10 · This review summarizes the basics of IVT mRNA, byproducts and LNP-induced immune activation, as well as the current state of RNA-based non-immunotherapy applications. The review further analyzes the current solutions for boosting efficacy, safety, and future considerations for developing LNP-mRNA therapeutics. 2.

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  • Favorable Attributes of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer

    2012-3-18 · surfactant to have high oil solubilization and hence low interfacial tensions over a wide range of conditions. It is studied in combi-nation with an internal olefin sulfonate (IOS-15-18), which is more hydrophilic and can be used to adjust optimal salinity of the mix-ture, and with sodium carbonate as the alkali and partially hydro-

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  • David Dreisinger - UBC Professor - Faculty Member ...

    The traditional electrowinning process is not suitable for the production of high-purity manganese. Therefore, a novel ion exchange - electrorefining process for production of high-purity manganese is proposed to solve the problems. The ammonium chloride – manganese chloride electrolyte was selected as the most promising for refining.

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  • Production and Application of Lignosulfonates and ...

    2017-3-2 · In one study, 50 wt % lignosulfonates were reacted at 0.3:1 (w/w) H 2 O 2 /lignosulfonates for 0.5 h at 60 °C and pH 10. 89 Nevertheless, oxidation with H 2 O 2 can extensively degrade the lignosulfonate structure, rather than reacting with the reactive sites, which may introduce difficulties into the practical application of this process. 90 ...

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  • Green synthesis of near-infrared absorbing eugenate

    2019-12-9 · Ferrous chloride tetrahydrate (FeCl 2.4H 2 O) and Ferric chloride hexahydrate (FeCl 3.6H 2 O) were dissolved in 100 ml of deionized water in 1:2 molar ratio in a 250 ml glass beaker. The solution was heated at 60 °C for 15 min with continuous stirring at 500 rpm using magnetic stirrer.

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  • Influence of the Supporting Electrolyte on the ...

    2016-7-12 · 95%. In any case, the results of this study allow selecting the electrosynthesis working conditions depending on the wanted application of the PEDOT modified electrode. Keywords: 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, electropolymerization, p-doping, n-doping, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), nucleation and growth mechanism.

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  • Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris biomass harvesting by ...

    2018-6-28 · The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate chitosan flocculation performance in the harvesting of C. vulgaris biomass and determine its optimal dose, (2) to disclose the sedimentation properties of C. vulgaris biomass flocculated by chitosan, (3) to reveal the recyclability of the spent medium from flocculation to regrow microalgae and ...

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  • Response surface methodological (RSM) approach for ...

    2019-12-4 · Response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used for optimization of the process parameters and identifying the optimal conditions for the removal of …

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  • Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry:

    2005-4-1 · A novel nickel(II) α-diimine complex of 2,3-bis(2-phenylphenyl)butane diimine nickel dibromide ({[2-C 6 H 4 (C 6 H 5)] N C (CH 3)C(CH 3) N [2-C 6 H 4 (C 6 H 5)]}NiBr 2) possessing potentially two stereoisomers (complexes a and b) was synthesized for the preparation of long-chain-branched polyethylene with a broad or bimodal molecular weight distribution in the presence of modified ...

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